• Water Clusters: The Real Truth About Water Molecules

    Chemists have long recognized water as a substance having unusual and unique properties that one would not at first sight expect from a small molecule having the formula H2O. It is generally agreed that the special properties of water stem from the tendency of its molecules to associate, forming short-lived and ever-changing polymeric units that are sometimes described as "clusters". These clusters are more conceptual than physical in nature; they have no directly observable properties, and their transient existence (on the order of picoseconds) does not support an earlier view that water is a mixture of polymers (H2O)n in which n can have a variety of values. Instead, the currently favored model of water is one of a loosely connected network that might best be described as one huge "cluster" whose internal connections are continually undergoing rearrangement.

    Water has long been known to exhibit many physical properties that distinguish it from other small molecules of comparable mass. Chemists refer to these as the "anomalous" properties of water, but they are by no means mysterious; all are entirely predictable consequences of the way the size and nuclear charge of the oxygen atom conspire to distort the electronic charge clouds of the atoms of other elements when these are chemically bonded to the oxygen. 

  • Surface States of Excess Electrons on Water Clusters

    Electron attachment of water clusters was explored by the quantum path-integral molecular-dynamics method, demonstrating that the energetically favored localization mode involves a surface state of the excess electron. The cluster size dependence, the energetics, and the charge distribution of these novel electron-cluster surface states are explored.Most studies1 of small clusters focus on the dependence of the geometry, level structure, and other properties upon size (number of particles) and the "transition" from molecular to condensed-matter behavior. Characteristic to these systems is a large surface-to-volume ratio which could lead to unique, qualitatively different from bulk, chemical and physical behavior.2'3 In this Letter we shall demonstrate, using quantum path-integral molecular-dynamics simulations3'4 (QPIMD), that the energetically stable excess-electron states in small water clusters5"7 involve surface states rather than internally localized states which may be regarded as precursors of the celebrated hydrated electron.
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  • Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules

    have been investigated at different levels of theory. Although there exist minima lower in energy than
    these spiro-cyclic clusters, calculations at the Hartree–Fock level, density functional theory using B3LYP
    parametrization and second order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory using 6-31G and 6-311++G
    basis sets show that they are stable in their own right. Vibrational frequency calculations and atoms-in
    molecules analysis of the electron density map confirm the robustness of these hydrogen bonded clusters.

    Keywords. Hydrogen bonding; water clusters; spiro-cyclic; atoms-in-molecules.

  • Benefits of Alkaline, Ionized Water

    Сверионизированная вода - это вода, получаемая в процессе электролиза воды. Она имеет щёлочную реакцию, её ОВП снижается, уменьшается поверхностное натяжение, снижается количество растворённого кислорода и азота, возрастает концентрация водорода, свободных гидроксильных групп, уменьшается электропроводность, изменяется структура не только гидратных оболочек ионов, но и свободного объёма воды. Такая вода нейтрализует повышенную кислотность организма.

  • Electronic Structure of Ionized Water Clusters

    Eric J. Sundstrom, Piotr A. Pieniazek, and Anna I. Krylov

    Ionization of liquid water is of great practical interest in the context of atmospheric and biological chemistry. The removal of an electron leads to cascade formation of reactive intermediates that can incur cellular damage. Despite several decades of research the nature of the initially formed state and its immediate dynamics are still poorly understood. We pose a very fundamental question: "What does it mean to ionize water?"

  • Infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy of water clusters: O– D stretching bands

    The infrared O – D stretching spectrum of fully deuterated jet-cooled water clusters is reported.
    Sequential red-shifts in the single donor O – D stretches, which characterize the cooperative effects
    in the hydrogen bond network, were accurately measured for clusters up to ( D2O) 8 . Detailed
    comparisons with corresponding data obtained for ( H2O) n clusters are presented. Additionally,
    rotational analyses of two D2O dimer bands are presented. These measurements were made possible
    by the advent of infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy IR-CRLAS using
    Raman-shifted pulsed dye lasers, which creates many new opportunities for gas phase IR
    spectroscopy.

  • “Water Buckyball” Terahertz Vibrations in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Cosmology

    Pentagonal dodecahedral water clusters – “water buckyballs” - and arrays thereof are shown from

    first-principles electronic-structure calculations to possess unique terahertz-frequency vibrational
    modes in the 1-6 THz range, corresponding to O–O–O “bending”, “squashing”, and “twisting”
    “surface” distortions of the clusters. The cluster LUMOs are huge “Rydberg” “S”-, “P”-, “D”-, and
    “F”like molecular orbitals that accept an extra electron via optical excitation, ionization, or
    electron-donation from interacting atoms or molecules.

  • Hydrogen-Bond Networks in Water Clusters (H2O)20: An Exhaustive Quantum-Chemical

    Water aggregates allow for numerous configurations due to different
    distributions of hydrogen bonds. The total number of possible
    hydrogen-bond networks is very large even for medium-sized
    systems. We demonstrate that the targeted ultra-fast methods of
    quantum chemistry make an exhaustive analysis of all configurations
    possible. The cage of (H2O)20 in the form of the pentagonal
    dodecahedron is a common motif in water structures. We calculated
    the spatial and electronic structure of all hydrogen-bond
    configurations for three systems: idealized cage (H2O)20 and defect
    cages with one or two hydrogen bonds broken. More than 3 million
    configurations studied provide unique data on the structure and
    properties of water clusters. We performed a thorough analysis of the
    results with the emphasis on the cooperativity in water systems and
    the structure-property relations.

  • Untangling the mysteries of the liquid. Научные доказательства кластерной структуры воды

    В этом разделе собраны иинтересные научные статьи по структуре воды, написанные зарубежными учёными (на русском языке таких материалов или очень мало, или нет вообще). Все эти статьи я с большим трудом отыскал в интернете и скачал с сайтов зарубежных научных журналов. Эти материалы действительно уникальны по своей научной значимости, поскольку их результаты доказывают кластерную структуру воды. Материалы уникальные тем, что это полные статьи. Обычно научные журналы не публикуют полнотекстные статьи, а дают лишь короткую аннотацию. Поэтому найти полноценные научные статьи в интернете довольно сложно. Нужно либо идти в научную библиотеку или платить деньги интернет-редакциям. Поэтому это будет очень полезно нашим читателям и особенно людям, работающей в научной сфере, так как таких статей на русском языке практически нет. Меня очень часто читатели спрашивают тот или иной физико-химический показатель, а здесь все они собраны воедино.
    Мосин Олег

  • Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time

    Extensive terahertz laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra and
    mid-IR laser spectra have been compiled for several isotopomers of
    small (dimer through hexamer) water clusters. These data, in
    conjunction with new theoretical advances, quantify the struc
    tures, force fields, dipole moments, and hydrogen bond rearrange
    ment dynamics in these clusters. This new information permits us
    to systematically untangle the intricacies associated with cooper
    ative hydrogen bonding and promises to lead to a more complete
    molecular description of the liquid and solid phases of water,
    including an accurate universal force field.

  • Protonated Water Clusters

    Magic number (H2O)21+ cluster

    Support National Science Foundation Department of Energy

    Co-workers

    R. A. Christie, J. Cui, E. M. Myshakin, T. H. Choi - Univ. Pittsburgh M. A. Johnson, J. -W. Shin, N. I. Hammer, E. G. Diken - Yale M. A. Duncan, R. S. Walters, T. D. Jaeger - Univ. of Georgia

    Computational resources

    • CMMS (Univ. of Pittsburgh) • Pittsburgh Supercomputing

  • Water Clusters - Ultra Hydration for Metabolic Efficiency

    In the last decade we have seen an emergence of a several new classes of bottled waters. These classes go by the several names: energetic, structured, clustered, electrolytic, and eloptic to name a few. The question that must be answered is, “What do these new classes mean and how can they help us live healthier happier lives?” To understand this we must first examine the basic physics of water. Water on the surface seems fairly simple. Combine 2 hydrogen atoms together with a receptive oxygen atom and you form the basic H2O molecule. In nature, these H2O molecules form complex patterns by grouping and clumping together into “clusters”. These clusters form around ions in the solution, and are in and ever changing state of flux. They expand and contract continuously, grouping into large clusters and then splitting apart into smaller ones. This flux or change in clusters is called the Brownian movement of water.

  • Cooperativity in Large Water Clusters Liquid Water, Iceand Clathrates

    John von Neumann Institute for Computing

    RogerA. Klein publishedin NICSymposium2006, G.M unster,D.Wolf,M.Kremer(Editors), Johnvon Neumann Institute for Computing, Julich, NIC Series, Vol. 32,ISBN3-00-017351-X,pp. 65-74,2006. 2006 by Johnvon Neumann Institutefor Computing

    Permission to make digital or hardcopies of portions of this work for personal or classroomuseisgrantedprovidedthat thecopiesarenot madeor distributedfor pro t or commercial advantageandthat copies bear thisnoticeandthefull citationonthe rst page. Tocopyotherwise requirespriorspeci cpermission by the publishermentionedabove. www.fz-juelich.de/nic-series/volume32 Cooperativity in Large Water Clusters Liquid Water, Ice and Clathrates Roger A. Klein Institute for Physiological Chemistry University of Bonn, Nussallee 11, 53115 Bonn, Germany

  • The structure of Protonated Water Clusters

    Of the chemical reactions that can occur in aqueous solution, acid-base reactions are among the most pervasive and important. Although it is easy to specify the balanced chemical equation for such a reaction [HX(aq) oH+(aq) + X(aq), where H is a proton and Xis the conjugate base of the acid HX], it is far more difficult to characterize the structures of these solvated ions, particularly the solvated proton.

    On page 1137 of this issue, Shin et al. (1) and Miyazaki et al. on page 1134 (2) use the powerful tool of infrared (IR) spectroscopy to probe protonated water clusters H+(H2O)nwith n = 6 to 27. By isolating and mass-selecting the large protonated water clusters in the gas phase, the researchers are able to record the IR spectra of each cluster size in this range, and thereby follow the development of the IR spectrum as a function of the number of water molecules in the cluster.

  • Structure and Stability of Water Clusters

    Shruti Maheshwary, Nitin Patel, and Narayanasami Sathyamurthy Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, 208 016 India Anant D. Kulkarni and Shridhar R. Gadre Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of Pune, Pune, 411 007 India ReceiVed: August 15, 2001

    Extensive ab initio calculations have been performed using the 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis sets for several possible structures of water clusters (H2O)n, n ) 8-20. It is found that the most stable geometries arise from a fusion of tetrameric or pentameric rings. As a result, (H2O)n, n ) 8, 12, 16, and 20, are found to be cuboids, while (H2O)10 and (H2O)15 are fused pentameric structures. For the other water clusters (n ) 9, 11, 13, 14, and 17-19) under investigation, the most stable geometries can be thought of as arising from either the cuboid or the fused pentamers or a combination thereof.

  • The Structure Of Liquid Water

    Keywords: Water, Structure of water, Epitaxy, Succusion, Nanobubbles, Colloids.

    This paper provides an interdisciplinary base of information on the structure of liquid water.
    It begins with a synthesis built on the information base on the structure5 of noncrystalline,
    inorganic, covalently-bonded condensed liquid phases, such as SiO2, S, Se, P, and H2O, which
    exists in the materials science literature. The data for water are analyzed through the prism of
    well-established algorithms in materials research: the connection of properties to structure;
    the pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagrams; the phenomenon of epitaxy; the phenomenon
    of liquid-liquid phase separation; the stability of two phase colloids; and, the recently
    discovered effects of weak magnetic and electric fields on the structure of simple inorganic
    oxides. A thorough combing of the literature of the condensed matter properties reflecting
    structural features of essentially pure water obtained via the normal processes of preparing
    homeopathic remedies, provides another rich data base. 

  • Entropy and time in living matter

    2011, Dr. Ignat Ignatov, Sofia, Bulgaria

    The Russian scientist Semihina studied the tangent of dielectrical losses physical indicator for water in different animals (Semihina, 2005). Names of animals in the figure from top to bottom – earth-worms (1), carassius fish (2), mouse (3), frog (4), hamster (5).

    Tangent of dielectrical losses of water
    of different animals, Semihina

    The largest the extremities in this parameter, especially at 200 KHz or in the kilometer range of the e. m. waves, the highest level of evolutionary development of the animal. This is also an indicator for the “distancing” of the water in the different animals from the initial water for the origination of life. This is also an essential evidence that water is diverse in the various living creatures. When testing water in animals, there are differences in comparison with water in plants and natural waters. In animals bioelectric processes are more dynamic compared to plants. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate and sea water, is tested as a model system. Therefore it is difficult to make conclusions about the structure of water from bioelectrical indicators in animals without a parallel spectral analysis.

  • Water

    “There are several ways in which certain liquids can crystallize—can freeze—

    several ways in which their atoms can stack and lock in an orderly, rigid way.
    Suppose that the sort of ice we skate upon and put into highballs—what we call
    ice-l—is only one of several types of ice. Suppose water always froze as ice-l
    on Earth because it never had a seed to teach it how to form ice-two, ice-three,
    ice-four…? And suppose that there were one form, which we will call ice-nine,
    a crystal as hard as this desk with a melting point of 130°F. And suppose that
    one Marine had with him a tiny capsule containing a seed of ice-nine, a new
    way for the atoms of water to stack and lock, to freeze. If that Marine threw that
    seed into the nearest puddle…?”

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