• The production of 2H-labeled amino acids by a new mutant

    Summary

    The biosynthesis of 2H-labeled phenylalanine was done by converse of low molecular weight substrates ([U2H]methanol and 2H2O) in a new RuMP facultative methylotrophic mutant Brevibacterium methylicum. To make the process work, adapted cells with improved growth characteristics were used on minimal medium M9 with the maximum content of 2H-labeled substrates. Alanine, valine, and leucine/isoleucine were produced and accumulated exogeneously in addition to the main product of biosynthesis. Electron impact mass spectrometry of methyl esters of the N-Dns-amino acid mixture obtained after the chemical derivatization of growth medium with dansyl chloride and diazomethane, was done to calculate the deuterium enrichment of the amino acids synthesized. The experimental data testified to the character of labeling of amino acid molecules as heterogeneous; however, high levels of deuterium enrichment were detected in all presented molecules - for phenylalanine the enrichment was six, leucine/isoleucine - 5.1, valine - 4.7, and alanine - 3.1 deuterium atoms.

  • Methylotrophic biomass as 2H-labeled substrate for biosynthesis of inosine

    It was proposed to use the 2H-labeled hydrolysate of RuMP facultative methylotroph Brevibacterium methylicum, obtained from deuterated salt medium dM9 as a substrate for the growth of inosine producing bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The growth of the bacterim was performed via glucose convertion on specially developed medium dHM with 78.5% (m/m) 2H2O and supplimented with 2.5% (m/m) of 2H-labeled methylotrophic hydrolysate. To evaluate the level of deuterium enrichment FAB MS technique was used after the isolation of 2H-labeled inosine. 2H-labeled inosine obtained from dHM medium represented a mixture of molecular species containing various number of included deuterium atoms with different contribution to the enrichment. The level of enrichmet calculated by the presence of most abandant peak of the molecular ion in cluster ((M+H)+ at m/z 274) was estimated as five deuterium atoms, from which three are attributed to ribose and two to hypoxantine. 

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  • Heavy water and adaptation

    The physiological adaptation process of various bacterial producents of amino acids, proteins and nucleosides belonging to various taxsonomic groups of microorganisms (facultative and obligate methylotrophic bacteria - Brevibacterium methylicum and Methylobacills flagellatum, halophilic bacterium - Halobacterium halobium and bacills - Bacillus subtilis) to growth and biosynthesis of necessary compounds on media containing the maximum concentration of heavy water is investigated. In article is informed on a method, which consists in multistep adaptation of bacteria to deuterium with the folowing selection of individual colonies grown on heavy water. In the result of application of the given approach among the studied bacteria were selected the individual strains keeping high growth and biosynthetic abilities while growing on heavy water.

  • Biological effects of heavy water in cells

    Oleg V. Mosin

    Department of Biotechnology, M. V. Lomonosov State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Vernadskogo Prospekt 86, 117571, Moscow, Russia

    ABSTRACT
    The biological effects of heavy water prove to be very interesting question of nowdays biochemical science which comprising two main points: the evolution of deuterium itself as well as the chemical processes going on with participation of deuterium oxyde.

  • Everything about water

    In my opinion, (says O. V. Mosin Ph. D), this is the best scientific site about water on the Internet, and it has collected virtually all the information about water and its properties (he has even counted 66 anomalies of water). Moreover Chaplin has suggested a water model different from Zenin’s model, based not on a dodecahedron, but on a icosahedron. There the methods for the construction of water clusters are described in detail.

    Nowadays Martin Chaplin is a very popular scientist worldwide who studies the structure of water. His water model differs from Zenin’s model and is based not on a dodecahedron, but on a icosahedron. There the methods for the construction of water clusters are described in detail. Currently this is the most complete scientific site about water and its structure, and M. Chaplin himself is a scientist and researcher of water, widely known throughout the world.

  • Revealing the hydrate formation process at the water-CO2 interface

    Water can form solid clathrate phases in the presence of small molecules. These so called hydrates are crystalline inclusion compounds where guest molecules, mainly gases, are trapped in an ice-like network of nanometre-sized cages. Methane hydrate is of special importance as it occurs in huge amounts in the sediments of deep sea regions. In recent years hydrates have attracted general interest because of a rising number of possible applications, e.g. mining of methane from the ocean floor or the storage of CO2 or H2. Thus, for such applications, knowledge of the fundamental processes involved is essential in order to control -inhibit or initiatehydrate formation. In general, two kinds of model exist describing the formation of hydrates at the molecular level. While cluster models such as the cluster nucleation theory [1] predict hydrate precursors forming around dissolved guest molecules, in stochastic models, like the local structuring hypothesis [2], the hydrate formation happens without such precursors. The difference between the two models is illustrated schematically in Figure 40.

  • UNDERSTANDING GRANDER "PENERGIZER" WATER

    Johann Grander is an Austrian who did not claim to be a scientist, yet claims to have developed a technique for imprinting "natural" and "vital" electromagnetic energies into water.

    Grander claims to be able to restore water to its natural state, removing the influence of chemical contamination, electrical disturbances and even the "destructive effect of earth-orbiting satellites"---all with a small pen-like device used to simply stir water in a water glass.

    According to Grander, the "effective operating principle" of the Grander Water system is the

    "implosion of electromagnetic and subtle energy fields".

  • GRANDER WATER: ESOTERIC HUMBUG

    Scientist won trial at the "Oberlandesgericht Wien" (High Court Vienna,Austria)

    Vienna (APA-OTS, 2006-09-06) - In a case that made national news, the High Court in Vienna, Austria, ruled in favour of Viennese biologist Dr. Erich Eder, after three years of trial. The Tyrolean company U.V.O., distributor of the GRANDER® products that supposedly "vitalize" water, had taken legal action against Dr. Eder as he had criticized their products as being "esoteric humbug".

  • Grander water weirdness

    Most of the water-cluster hucksters peddle "concentrates" that you add to your drinking water in order to "cluster" or "uncluster" it (depending on which fable you prefer tobelieve.) Johann Grander is an Austrian inventor who claims to have found a way to "revitalize" water, changing its "inner structure" and returning "the watermolecules to a highly ordered state, making the water more stable."
  • “Informationability” of Water and Origin of Living Matter Bioresonance Effects

    Dr. Ignat Ignatov – Biophysicist
    2006 Sofia, Bulgaria

    Water is the foundation of life. It is still a mystery for science how non-living matter transformed into a living one. New properties of water have to be studied, though it seems like we know all about it already.

    In March 2004 an American space probe found “traces’ of water on Mars and salt in a dried up lake.

    Scientists can already presume that perhaps there has been and still is life on this planet.

    On two of Saturn’s satellites American space probes found traces of water.

  • Water for the origination of life. Memory of Water and Origin of Living Matter

    Studies of the properties of homeopathic solutions have one peculiarity. In the homeopathic solution the effect is influenced not only by the diluted substance and the potentiation, but also by a third feature that researchers do not report. The solution itself is potentiated in an electromagnetic device and electromagnetic fields indicate to the device an influence on the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. This means that this method of preparation of homeopathic solutions can not serve for the making of fundamental conclusions about informational properties of water.

  • Water Clusters: The Real Truth About Water Molecules

    Chemists have long recognized water as a substance having unusual and unique properties that one would not at first sight expect from a small molecule having the formula H2O. It is generally agreed that the special properties of water stem from the tendency of its molecules to associate, forming short-lived and ever-changing polymeric units that are sometimes described as "clusters". These clusters are more conceptual than physical in nature; they have no directly observable properties, and their transient existence (on the order of picoseconds) does not support an earlier view that water is a mixture of polymers (H2O)n in which n can have a variety of values. Instead, the currently favored model of water is one of a loosely connected network that might best be described as one huge "cluster" whose internal connections are continually undergoing rearrangement.

    Water has long been known to exhibit many physical properties that distinguish it from other small molecules of comparable mass. Chemists refer to these as the "anomalous" properties of water, but they are by no means mysterious; all are entirely predictable consequences of the way the size and nuclear charge of the oxygen atom conspire to distort the electronic charge clouds of the atoms of other elements when these are chemically bonded to the oxygen. 

  • Surface States of Excess Electrons on Water Clusters

    Electron attachment of water clusters was explored by the quantum path-integral molecular-dynamics method, demonstrating that the energetically favored localization mode involves a surface state of the excess electron. The cluster size dependence, the energetics, and the charge distribution of these novel electron-cluster surface states are explored.Most studies1 of small clusters focus on the dependence of the geometry, level structure, and other properties upon size (number of particles) and the "transition" from molecular to condensed-matter behavior. Characteristic to these systems is a large surface-to-volume ratio which could lead to unique, qualitatively different from bulk, chemical and physical behavior.2'3 In this Letter we shall demonstrate, using quantum path-integral molecular-dynamics simulations3'4 (QPIMD), that the energetically stable excess-electron states in small water clusters5"7 involve surface states rather than internally localized states which may be regarded as precursors of the celebrated hydrated electron.
  • Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules

    have been investigated at different levels of theory. Although there exist minima lower in energy than
    these spiro-cyclic clusters, calculations at the Hartree–Fock level, density functional theory using B3LYP
    parametrization and second order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory using 6-31G and 6-311++G
    basis sets show that they are stable in their own right. Vibrational frequency calculations and atoms-in
    molecules analysis of the electron density map confirm the robustness of these hydrogen bonded clusters.

    Keywords. Hydrogen bonding; water clusters; spiro-cyclic; atoms-in-molecules.

  • Benefits of Alkaline, Ionized Water

    Сверионизированная вода - это вода, получаемая в процессе электролиза воды. Она имеет щёлочную реакцию, её ОВП снижается, уменьшается поверхностное натяжение, снижается количество растворённого кислорода и азота, возрастает концентрация водорода, свободных гидроксильных групп, уменьшается электропроводность, изменяется структура не только гидратных оболочек ионов, но и свободного объёма воды. Такая вода нейтрализует повышенную кислотность организма.

  • Electronic Structure of Ionized Water Clusters

    Eric J. Sundstrom, Piotr A. Pieniazek, and Anna I. Krylov

    Ionization of liquid water is of great practical interest in the context of atmospheric and biological chemistry. The removal of an electron leads to cascade formation of reactive intermediates that can incur cellular damage. Despite several decades of research the nature of the initially formed state and its immediate dynamics are still poorly understood. We pose a very fundamental question: "What does it mean to ionize water?"

  • Infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy of water clusters: O– D stretching bands

    The infrared O – D stretching spectrum of fully deuterated jet-cooled water clusters is reported.
    Sequential red-shifts in the single donor O – D stretches, which characterize the cooperative effects
    in the hydrogen bond network, were accurately measured for clusters up to ( D2O) 8 . Detailed
    comparisons with corresponding data obtained for ( H2O) n clusters are presented. Additionally,
    rotational analyses of two D2O dimer bands are presented. These measurements were made possible
    by the advent of infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy IR-CRLAS using
    Raman-shifted pulsed dye lasers, which creates many new opportunities for gas phase IR
    spectroscopy.

  • “Water Buckyball” Terahertz Vibrations in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Cosmology

    Pentagonal dodecahedral water clusters – “water buckyballs” - and arrays thereof are shown from

    first-principles electronic-structure calculations to possess unique terahertz-frequency vibrational
    modes in the 1-6 THz range, corresponding to O–O–O “bending”, “squashing”, and “twisting”
    “surface” distortions of the clusters. The cluster LUMOs are huge “Rydberg” “S”-, “P”-, “D”-, and
    “F”like molecular orbitals that accept an extra electron via optical excitation, ionization, or
    electron-donation from interacting atoms or molecules.

  • Hydrogen-Bond Networks in Water Clusters (H2O)20: An Exhaustive Quantum-Chemical

    Water aggregates allow for numerous configurations due to different
    distributions of hydrogen bonds. The total number of possible
    hydrogen-bond networks is very large even for medium-sized
    systems. We demonstrate that the targeted ultra-fast methods of
    quantum chemistry make an exhaustive analysis of all configurations
    possible. The cage of (H2O)20 in the form of the pentagonal
    dodecahedron is a common motif in water structures. We calculated
    the spatial and electronic structure of all hydrogen-bond
    configurations for three systems: idealized cage (H2O)20 and defect
    cages with one or two hydrogen bonds broken. More than 3 million
    configurations studied provide unique data on the structure and
    properties of water clusters. We performed a thorough analysis of the
    results with the emphasis on the cooperativity in water systems and
    the structure-property relations.