Theoretical analysis of hydraulic engine of internal combustion as a new principle of thermal power plant
In 1824 the French engineer S. Carnot published his work «Theoretical thermodynamic circular process», which became subsequently a basis of the theory of thermal engines. In this work the theoretical circular process comprises two isothermal and two adiabatic processes.
The degree of any engine perfection is defined by its real cycle correspondence to the theoretical. The theoretical cycle of Carnot proves that irreversibility of the cycle processes can be reduced almost to zero, if in isothermal process between points 1-2 on the temperature diagram of the working body is lower than the temperature of the hot source by infinitesimal quantity, and in isothermal process between points 3-4 the temperature of the working body is higher than the temperature of the cold source by infinitesimal quantity dT (Fig. 1).
If this condition is observed and if the process of adiabatic expansion of the working body between points 2-3 and its adiabatic compression process between points 4-1 is performed without friction the considered cycle becomes reversible (the example of the ideal thermal plant). In this respect the proposed hydraulic engine of internal combustion, as a new principle of the thermal plant functioning, completely meets the requirements of the theoretical cycle.
Hydraulic engine of internal combustion design is based on the principle of connected vessels filled with water, and its properties are used as a hydraulic drive. Water also is needed to perform the thermodynamic cycle. Water in this sense is the cheapest and most available working medium, which has the property to change its aggregative state during the cycle. Thus, if pure hydrogen and oxygen are applied as fuel to perform a thermodynamic cycle based on the principle of engine of internal combustion their burning in a working cavity results in water steam generation, which can be easily condensed to receive water again. At such combination of cycles there is a surprising possibility to exclude an exhaust, and to carry out a cycle as the closed system, that is supposed by the theoretical cycle. Application of hydrogen and oxygen to deliver heat to actually working engine completely corresponds to the theoretical isotherm and provides dT. In turn the isobar process of heat removal (condensation) does not contradict the theoretical isotherm as in the two-phase area of a pure substance state, isobars coincide with isotherms. The problem of achieving dT in the isothermal process between points 3-4 is solved by an obligatory condition of hydraulic engine of internal combustion design - not less than two engines on one working shaft (a dissymmetric tandem). Dissymmetric inclusion of the second engine under the scheme of cycles overlapping (Fig. 2), combines points 2-3 of the adiabatic process of expansion of the first engine with points 1-2
of the isothermal expansion of the second engine. Combination under the given scheme of adiabatic curves and isotherms of the first and second engines in the entire circular cycle promotes the free course adiabatic process and provides dT in isothermal process of compression between points of cycle 3-4. In this situation the cycle of hydraulic engine of internal combustion corresponds to a theoretical cycle as much as possible.
It is necessary to solve last two major problems. The first problem which should be solved is high velocity of the flame front distribution arising at interaction of pure hydrogen and pure oxygen, the second problem is the high cost of hydrogen and oxygen obtained from water. Both these problems are solved by hydraulic engine of internal combustion design which allows implementing an artificial source of inexhaustible energy.Pure oxygen which is constantly present in the combustion chamber reacts with fuel of the stoichiometric structure supplied to the combustion chamber and displaces balance of the chemical constant under law of mass action, and after reaction it completely restores before the next cycle.
So, from the above stated, it is obvious, that the real thermodynamic cycle of the hydraulic engine of internal combustion is as close as possible to the theoretical reversible process. Hydraulic engine of internal combustion can claim to rank as an ideal design of thermal plant because it allows implementing all requirements of a theoretical cycle. The proposed artificial source of inexhaustible energy is a logic consequence of the design, and the aesthetic logic of a design is completed by a tandem.
Authors leave to the world scientific community to recognize the hydraulic engine of internal combustion as a variant of a perpetuum mobile of the second kind as in the theory nothing is said about artificial sources of inexhaustible energy.