• Космос

    Откуда берутся в нашей Галактике молодые и «сверхмолодые» звезды? С давних пор, по установившейся традиции, восходящей к гипотезе Канта и Лапласа о происхождении Солнечной системы, астрономы предполагали, что звезды образуются из рассеянной диффузной газово-пылевой среды.

    Было только одно строгое теоретическое основание такого убеждения - гравитационная неустойчивость первоначально однородной диффузной среды. Дело в том, что в такой среде неизбежны малые возмущения плотности, то есть отклонения от строгой однородности. в дальнейшем, однако, если массы этих конденсаций превосходят некоторый предел, под влиянием силы всемирного тяготения малые возмущения будут нарастать и первоначально однородная среда разобьется на несколько конденсаций. Под действием силы гравитации эти конденсации будут продолжать сжиматься и, как можно полагать, в конце концов превратятся в звезды.

  • References

    Baturin G. N., Emelyanov, E. M., Kunzendorf, H., 1995.
    Authigenous deposits in the sediments. In E. M. Emelyanov,
    Ch. Christiansen, O. Michelsen (eds), Geology of
    the Bornholm Basin, Aarhus Geoscience 5, 189-194.
    CARION NPF, 2005. Technique of performance of measurements
    of a mass fraction of metals in powder tests of
    sea bottom sediments by a method X-Ray Fluorescence
    Spectrometry. M-002/2005. Certificate of Compliance
    № 242/57-2005. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology

  • Conclusions

    Increased As concentrations (111-277 mg/kg) in the
    surface layer of the bottom sediments were found near
    the ships wreck W.1 and W.3 and mostly, and just in
    areas where the metal objects occur in the mud. The
    sources of arsenic could be thin–wall containers, shells
    and bombs with As–containing agents depressurized
    during they remained at surface of the bottom. Such
    distribution of arsenic could be reckoned as indicator
    of leakage of As– containing warfare agents to the
    marine environment. The state of metal objects
    (probably, shells, bombs, containers) were buried in
    the mud at depth 1-2 m from the surface is unknown.
    It is desirable to conduct special study of these objects
    in future.


    For clay and shale the average background content
    of As is normally 10 mg/kg. Examined samples from
    the Bornholm Basin, based also on the data shown by
    Emelyanov and Kravtsov (2007), contain from 1 to
    277 mg/kg As (see Tables 2, 3). The highest As value
    (277 mg/kg) was found in the mud from “hot spot” of
    the P-181 area in the Bornholm Basin, located about
    500 m to the south from W.3 shipwreck.

  • Results

    Sapropel and sapropel–like mud is common not only
    in the Bornholm Basin but also in many other Baltic
    Sea basins. In the Bornholm Basin this mud contains
    up to 7.87% Corg, 7.08% Fe, 0.86% Mn (Table 2). Two
    mud samples taken near the shipwreck (stations 26S
    and 47) contained 17.7 and 41.5% Fe respectively
    (Table 3). Apparently these sediments might have
    some metal scrap corrosion products. Ignoring these
    outliers, Fe concentration varies in a much narrower
    range–between 0.05-7.08%.

  • Material and Methods

    Material underlying this article is based on samples
    of bottom sediments taken from the Bornholm
    CW dumpsite during implementation of MERCW
    Project: explorations on R/Vs Professor Shtokman
    and Centaurus in 2006 and 2007 and on the chartered
    German vessel Fritz Reuter in 2008. Sampling stations
    in the Bornholm Deep were chosen on the basis of
    earlier data about arsenic distribution and location
    of the shipwrecks that had been obtained during
    1997–2005 and subsequently studied in AB IO RAS
    (Paka 2004; Emelyanov, Kravtsov 2007). 178 samples
    of sediments from the Bornholm Basin were subject to
    chemical analysis in AB IO RAS (Emelyanov 2007;
    Emelyanov, Kravtsov 2007). This included grain
    size analysis of sediments and determination of the
    following 18 elements contained in the sediments:
    Corg, Ntotal, Ptotal, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cu, Zn, Co,
    Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, As. The central part of the CW dumps
    site (encircled area at Fig. 1) was further referred to
    as “hot spot”.


    The Bornholm Basin with water depth of about 100
    m is located east of the island of Bornholm, in the
    south–western Baltic Sea. It has its boundaries at
    50030’–55045’N and 14030’–16030’E. The basin is
    assumed to be bordered by 50 m isobaths (Fig.1) thus
    covering the area of 14 000 sq. km. It is surrounded
    by shallow bottom areas with depth ranging between
    25 and 30 m. Saline and dense waters occasionally
    penetrating to the Baltic from the North Sea, find
    their way from the Danish passages first to the Arkona
    Basin with depth of about 46 metres, then entering the
    Bornholm Basin through the Bornholm Gat channel.
    The Słupsk Trench is another considerably deep basin
    to the east of the Bornholm Basin, separated from the
    latter by a moraine ridge, thus forming Słupsk Sill with
    its ridge coming at the depth of 56 m.

  • Grander-Wasser: "Esoterischer Unfug"

    Wien (OTS) - Zum überwältigenden Teil bekam der Wiener Biologe und grüne Bezirksrat Dr. Erich Eder in einem Prozess Recht, den die Tiroler Vertriebsfirma der so genannten GRANDER(R)-Produkte, U.V.O., gegen ihn angestrengt hatte. Der Berufung der Granderwasser-Vertriebsfirma wurde vom Oberlandesgericht Wien in der Hauptsache nicht Folge gegeben, Eders Berufung hatte teilweise Erfolg.

    Bereits seit Jahren wissen Wissenschaftler und Konsumentenschützer von der Wirkungslosigkeit der Grander-Geräte: "Es ist mir ein Rätsel, dass diese Geräte in Österreich noch immer vertrieben werden dürfen. Sie sind offensichtlich wirkungslos", so Eder, der unter anderem Autor und Gutachter für die renommierte wissenschaftliche Fachzeitschrift "Hydrobiologia" ist und im Vorjahr mit dem Wissenschafts-Förderungspreis der Stadt Wien ausgezeichnet wurde.

  • Wasser für die Entstehung von Leben

      Studien über die Eigenschaften homöopathischer Lösungen haben eine Eigenart.

      In der homöopathischen Lösung ist der Effekt nicht nur von der wässrigen Substanz und der Potenzierung beeinflusst, sondern auch von einer dritten Besonderheit, über die die Forscher nicht berichten. Die Lösung selbst wird potenziert in einem elektromagnetischen Gerät und elektromagnetische Felder indizieren an das Gerät einen Einfluss auf die Wasserstoffbrückenbindungen zwischen den Wassermolekülen. Dies bedeutet, dass diese Methode zur Bereitung von homöopathischen Lösungen nicht den fundamentalen Aussagen über die “informativen” Eigenschaften von Wasser dienen kann.

    • Biological adaptation to heavy water

      1. Actuality of the work proposed.

      1.1. Deuterium (2H), the hydrogen isotope with mass 2, was discovered by Urey. In the years immediately following this discovery, there developed a keen interest in a biological enrichment of a cell with 2H, which resulted in a miscellany of rather confusing data (Katz J., Crespy H. L. 1972). The main conclusion that can be derived from the most competent and comprehensive of the early studies is that high concentrations of 2H2O are incompatible with life and reproduction. Nevertheless, a many cells could be quite well adapted to 2H2O, so that a discussion about the role of macromolecules in biolodical adaptation to 2H2O is still actual through more than four decades of years after the first description of the biological consequences of hydrogen replacement by deuterium.


      First, in frames of the biological research with deuterium the studies of incorporation of deuterium into the macromolecules are necessary. A biosynthetic introduction of deuterium in conjunction with mass spectrometry EIMS [1], FAB [2], and NMR [3] technigue has been used to study biological convertion of low molecular weight substrates ([U-2H]MetOH and 2H2O) to the amino acids, proteins and nucleotides by various strains of microbial and algae origin (green microalgae; Chlorella sp. and Dunaliella salina Teod., blue green algae Spirulina sp., halophilic bacterium Halobacterium halobium [4], methylotrophic bacteria; Methylobacillus flagellatum and Brevibacterium methylicum [5],  bacills; Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amiloliqufanciens [6] (Mosin O. V., Karnaukhova E. N., et all., 1993;  Mosin O. V., Skladnev D. A., et all., 1996a). The influence of 2H2O and other [U -2H]labeled substrates (e.g. [U-2H]MeOH) on several growth characteristics of the microorganisms (time of generation, lag-phase, yield of biomass) and biosynthetic activity was also investigated in those studies. 


      Campbell I. D., and Dwek. Biological Spectroscopy. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif. 1990.

      Covington A. K., Robinson R. A., and Bates R. G. // J. Phys. Chem. 1966. V. 70. P. 3820.

      Еgorova T. A., Mosin O. V., Shvets V. I., et al. // Biotechnologija. 1993. ¹.8. P. 21-25.

      Fesic S. W. and  Zuiderweg E. R. // Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics. - 1990. - V.23. - N.2. - P. 97-131.

      Johnson W. C. Protein secondary structure and circular dichroism: A practical guide. Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 1990. 7:205-214.


      The successful adaptation of organisms to high concentration of 2H2O will open a new avenues of investigation with using [U2H]labeled macromolecules could be isolated from these organisms. For example, fully deuterated essential macromolecules as proteins and nucleic acids will give promise of important biological, medical and diagnostical uses. Modern physical methods of study the structure of [U2H]labeled macromolecules, particularly three-dimentional NMR in a combination with crystallography methods, X-ray diffraction, IR-, and CDspectroscopy should cast new light on many obscure problems concerning with the biological introduction of deuterium into molecules of DNA and proteins as well as the structure and the function of macromolecules in the presence of 2H2O. The variety of these and other aspects of biophysical properties of fully deuterated macromolecules in the presence of 2H2O remain an interesting task for the future.


      4.1. The main hypothese. We proposed that a cell theoretically could in principle synthezise a big number of forms of [2H]labeled macromolecules with somewhat different structures and conformations, so that a cell could easily select a preferable one from al these species in a course of adaptation to 2H2O, that is the best suitable namely for that conditions. A simple imaginary principle I am going to discuss here perhaps somewhat may explain this probable mechanism. Let us suppose, for example that there are at least two imadinary structural systems - ordinary (normal) system call it a system 1 and unordinary (adaptive) system 2 (see a Figure above). Supporse, that the environment is a homoginious substanse and compose from ordinary substance A (H2O) (situation 1). The necessarely condition for the normal working of this model in natural H2O environment is that system 1 works and system 2 stay in background (situation 2). 


      3.1. The methods for analyzing the structure and the conformation of [U -2H]labeled macromolecules. The biological labelling with deuterium is an useful tool for investigating the structure and the conformational properties of macromolecules. The fundamental objectives have meant that living models have retained their importance for functional studies of such biological important macromolecules and can be used to obtain structural and dynamic information about the [U -2H]labeled macromolecules.


      A special attention will be given to the investigation of biological adaptation to 2H2O allowing cells to synthesize a deuterated forms of macromolecules (particulary interest have DNA and short-chain individual proteins both with well known amino acid sequence and conformation) with a certain structure allowing their functioning in 2H2O environment.

      Firstly, in this connection it would be very interesting to know, how the structure of fully deuterated macromolecules could be changed neganively or positively in a course of biological adaptation to 2H2O requiring the presence of high concentrations of 2H2O in growth media.

    • My Research - Summary

      The role of deuterium in molecular evolution is most interesting question of nowdays science comprises two points mainly: the evolution of deuterium itself as well as the chemical processes going with participation of deuterium. It is believed the big bang produce the universe that was much denser and hotter than it is now and made almost entirely of  two main elements - hydrogen and helium. Deuterium itself was made only at a second stage of the beginning of the universe, namely through the collision of one neutron with one proton at a temperature of about one billion degrees; furthemore the two formed deuterons in turn stuck together into helium nuclei, which contain two protons and two neutrons. It is considered, that during the formation of helium nuclei, almost all the deuterons combined to form helium nuclei, leaving a tiny remant to be detected today so that only one in 10.000 deuterons remained unpaired. Thus, deuterium serves as a particularly important marker. The quantity of deuterium in contemporary nature is approximately small and measured as no more than 0.015% (from the whole number of hydrogen atoms) and depends strongly on both the uniformity of substance and the total amount of matter formed in course of early evolution.

    • Curriculum vitae

      Part-time lecturer at Moscow State University of Food Production, 125080, Moscow, Volokolamskoet Shosse, 11, telepnone 158-03-71.

      Scientific interests:

      Application of various microbial objects for the preparation of cell compounds including proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleosides labeled with stable isotopes 2H, 13C, 15N;

      Metabolism of stable isotopes;

      Biological adaptation to heavy water and effects of heavy water on living objects;

      Adaptation to heavy water;

      Molecular evolution.

    • Mosin O. V., Biography

      Russian scientist, biochemist, researcher of water, engineer of technology (1992), candidate of Science (Ph. D in Chemistry) Dr. Oleg V. Mosin was bourn in a military family and had spent much time in Ural region. In 1992 he graduated from Moscow State Academy named after M.V. Lomonosov and taken post-graduate studies from the same Academy on the theme of biotechnological methods of production of stable isotope labeled compounds and further worked under the leadership of prominent Soviet and Russian scientist the founder of Soviet and Russian school of biotechnology Doctor of Sciences, academician, professor Vitaly I. Shvetz where he studied many living objects to resistance to highly deuterium content in growth media. By employing special adaptation technique many living cells were adapted to high deuterium content in growth media to prepare deuterated macromolecules. A special attention was given to the investigation of biological adaptation to 2H2O allowing cells to synthesize deuterated forms of macromolecules (DNA and short-chain individual proteins both with well known amino acid sequence and conformation) with a certain structure allowing their functioning in heavy water environment. For this purpose the special biotechnological approaches based on using the strains with improved properties when growing on heavy water for obtaining fully deuterated DNA and individual proteins were developed by him for allowing to prepare deuterated macromolecules in gram scale quantities.