Entropy and time in living matter
2011, Dr. Ignat Ignatov, Sofia, Bulgaria
The Russian scientist Semihina studied the tangent of dielectrical losses physical indicator for water in different animals (Semihina, 2005). Names of animals in the figure from top to bottom – earth-worms (1), carassius fish (2), mouse (3), frog (4), hamster (5).
The largest the extremities in this parameter, especially at 200 KHz or in the kilometer range of the e. m. waves, the highest level of evolutionary development of the animal. This is also an indicator for the “distancing” of the water in the different animals from the initial water for the origination of life. This is also an essential evidence that water is diverse in the various living creatures. When testing water in animals, there are differences in comparison with water in plants and natural waters. In animals bioelectric processes are more dynamic compared to plants. Mineral water, which interacts with calcium carbonate and sea water, is tested as a model system. Therefore it is difficult to make conclusions about the structure of water from bioelectrical indicators in animals without a parallel spectral analysis. Semihina and Krashenyuk demonstrate results with a frog. When there is stress, one can observe a peak at 200 KHz, in a tranquil state the peak decreases. Additional tests are required in order to prove whether stress influences the structure of water.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any closed system always strives toward an increase, i.e. increase of chaos. Living organisms are open systems, inside them entropy decreases andorder increases. In information theory, entropy is a measure for insufficiency of information in a physical system and is a function of probability. Entropy is infinite if probability is zero. According to Hawking, the second law of thermodynamics defines that the states of chaos significantly outnumber the states of order. He makes the assumption that in the beginning a system has a small number of orderly states. Over time, this system develops according to natural laws and its states change. At later stages, the states of chaos increase in number. Eventually, its states of chaos increase and so does entropy. He uses as an example the computer’s memory, which is based on the binary numeral system. The direction of time in which the computer saves the past is the same direction in which disorder increases.
Schrödinger demonstrates a correlation between the entropy of living organisms and the environment. Living organisms decrease their own entropy at the expense of the increase of the entropy of the environment.
Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the physical system. It is expressed in the number of possible arrangements of the components. Prigozhin received the Nobel Prize explaining that at a statistical level the chaotic states of living systems lead to an irreversible behavior. Self-structuring and self-organization are observed. He explains the auto-oscillatory reaction of Belousov–Zhabotinsky. Prigozhin shows how together with the increase of entropy, self-organization originates.
According to the author, living organisms decrease their own entropy due to their orderliness. This orderliness increases with the transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms. Cells divide in a particular sequence. Living organisms live with their our own energy, and also exchange substances and energy with the environment. The environment increases its entropy and thus its disorder. Over time, the living organism has more and more difficulties to adapt. This adaptation depends on the consistency and velocity of life processes. Time is a fundamental concept in physics and philosophy and the fourth dimension in space – the time continuum. According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, there are 3 spatial and one time dimension. Time measures the duration and sequence of states and events.
The more rapid the life processes, the faster the states of orderliness are observed, i.e. entropy decreases. Yet this leads to difficulties in compensating entropy with that of the environment, which is associated with metabolism and energy. These organisms such as mammals are able to live up to 100 years. In trees processes are slower, the states of orderliness are obtained more slowly and entropy decreases more slowly than in animals. In trees ‘life’ energy accumulates more slowly. There are trees that live more than 1000 years. For example in the turtle life processes are slower than in mammals and faster than in trees. It can live up to 300 years. For each living creature its own time can be defined, which somewhat differs from the time of the environment. This time correlates with parameters of the vital activity of living organisms (Ignatov, 2011).
Dr. Ignat Ignatov with turtle,
Halkida, Greece, 2010
Living organisms are open systems, entropy decreases and order increases in them.
In the 19th century the French scientist Brillouin defined entropy in information systems. On the grounds of biophysical information flows from the living creatures to the environment and vice versa, information properties and the entropy of water in living organisms are changed (Ignatov, Antonov, 1998). Biophysical parameters are introduced for a change of the average energy of the hydrogen bonds in water. “Informativity” of water is related to decrease of entropy in the restructuring of water molecules as a result of external influence (Ignatov, Antonov, 1998). In 2009 the Russian scientist Dulnev measured the parameters of chaos and order as parameters of entropy for one component in a living organism. Yet the living cell is multi-parameter with regard to biophysical parameters (Ignatov, 2011).
When considering the origin of life, the question arises whether there is information in surrounding space for this event. The information in the electromagnetic spectrum spreads with the speed of light. The plant world has originated 1.5 billion years ago. The spectrum of reflected light from plants in the red diapason is interrupted. This means that if this information can be disseminated and there is a highly-sensitive apparatus at a distance of 1.5 billion light years, this apparatus at present time will monitor the process that has occurred on Earth 1.5 billion years ago.
Let us imagine that from the Earth there is information at 1 light year. This information is identical on a sphere with a radius of 1 light year. Any observer from this sphere sees different information compared to other observers. Yet each observer from the sphere observes the center in the same way. In this regard, in the electromagnetic spectrum there is no identical information in different points, if a center of the coordinate system for observation has not been marked. This is an illustration of how time and space are related, when information is disseminated at the speed of light. Light quanta or photons have no mass. The presence of mass leads to deceleration. The question remains how fast can living matter with mass move in space.
However, when we obtain information from living organisms, it is in the electromagnetic range. In some of them there are also acoustic waves. But how does time from surrounding space affect living matter?
Here are two examples from Hawking. Let’s observe an airplane that flies over a hilly area. Although it moves in a straight line in three-dimensional space, its shadow depicts a bent path on the two-dimensional earth surface. The mass of the Sun bends space-time as follows. When the Earth moves in a straight line in four-dimensional space-time, to us it seems that it moves in a circular orbit in three dimensional space. The general relativity theory of Einstein stipulates that in proximity to such a massive body like the Earth, time slows down. The development of life is a unique phenomenon and the lifetime of any living thing depends on the speed of its processes, the “vital” energy, which is a measure of entropy, and the exchange of energy and substances with the environment. Diseases are a violation of processes in the organism and they create chaos in the living organism, as well as a shorter lifetime (Ignatov, 2011). This means that if an earth organism lives on another planet, a series of evolutionary changes will commence, related to gravity, light, water quality, etc. The organism’s own time will change, due to the different entropy and time of the environment.
In the origination of life, Mosin states that the information properties of water have been better because of deuterium molecules in the water. In such water entropy declines faster. Living creatures are part of Nature and the discovery of new planets gives us a chance to also discover extraterrestrial life forms.
Bibliography for the report:
1. Ignatov, I., Entropy and time in living organisms, ARCHIVEUROMEDICA, Hanover, (2011).
2. Ignatov, I., Entropy and time in living organisms, EUROMEDICA, Hanover, (2011).
3. Ignatov, I., Informationability” of Water and Origin of Life and Living Matter