DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION TO THE PATENT
(21), (22) Application: 2007105638/06
(24) Starting date of patent validity period count 2007.02.14
(45) Issue date: 2008.07.27
(56) List of documents quoted in the search report:
RU 2198308 C1, 10.02.2003. RU 2042844 C1,
FR 2346551 A1, 28.10.1977. GB 1380739 A1, 15.01.1975. DE 2612961 А, 06.11.1977. JP 54-39524, 28.11.1979.
(73) Patent Owner (s):
Alexander Pak (RU)
(54) HYDRAULIC ENGINE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION
The invention refers to heat engineering (heat technology) namely to hydraulic engines of internal combustion, and is intended for use in power engineering and automobile building. The hydraulic engine comprises not less than one pair of working cylinders joined by energy generating pipeline that includes two pipes joined by means of a hydraulic drive of an output shaft, connected to the converter equipped with metering feeders for fuel delivery, which is oxygen-hydrogen mixture and oxygen. The invention is intended to increase efficiency of a hydraulic engine of internal combustion. 3 drawings.
This invention refers to heat engineering (heat technology) namely to hydraulic engines of internal combustion (EIC) with a hydraulic drive of an output shaft, and can be used in power engineering to generate electric power and in automobile building.
EIC with a hydraulic drive of an output shaft, containing at least two or three working cylinders partially filled with fluid, feeding system, ignition and gas exchange systems in which the hydraulic drive of an output shaft is fabricated as a crank gear or as a hydraulic turbine were patented before (patents: Great Britain 1380739, МКИ F02В 75/32, 1975, Russian Federation 2006622, МКИ F02В 71/04,1994, Russian Federation 2198308, МКИ F02В 71/04, 2001).
However the known EIC have following disadvantages:
- Low efficiency (35-68 %) caused by loss to overcome friction, heat loss to cool water and exhaust gases;
- high operational, maintenance and repair cost;
- organic efficiency (efficiency) caused by incomplete combustion of fuel;
- low motor service life.
The most similar to the claimed invention according to the technical gist and reached result is the internal combustion engine containing not less than three working cylinders, filled with fluid, which bottom part is connected to a hydraulic drive of an output shaft in the form of hydraulic turbine and flywheel where each cylinder is supplied with a compression chamber and is joined by two various pipelines – energy generating and draining – with supplemental vessel located after the hydraulic turbine; the compression chambers in the bottom part are joined with working cylinders as connected vessels and to supplemental vessel through a compression pipeline in which a hydraulic pump is mounted on an output shaft of a hydraulic turbine, and a pump with a starting device is installed, and the compression chambers are additionally connected to working cylinders in the upper part; branch tubes for combustible mixture delivery, the delivery system being supplied with an air supercharger and is attached to the upper part of the compression chambers; working cylinders and compression chambers are heat-insulated inside and have floats with heat-insulated surface, mounted on rods with openings (RU 2198308 C1, F02B 71/04, 2003.02.10).
The disadvantages of the known solution are low efficiency (59-68 %) caused by heat loss with the exhaust gases and ineffective thermal insulation of cylinder walls.
The target of the present invention is to increase efficiency of a hydraulic engine of internal combustion.
The technical result is achieved due to decrease in heat loss in operation of hydraulic engine of internal combustion.
The set task is solved by following: the hydraulic engine of internal combustion supplied with a system of fluid delivery and draining, containing heat-insulated working cylinders filled with fluid, which bottom parts are joined by energy generating pipeline and are connected to a hydraulic drive of the output shaft and a flywheel and the top parts are fitted with an ignition system; at least one pair of the working cylinders connected between themselves by energy generating pipeline fabricated in the form of a system comprising two pipes, joined by means of a hydraulic drive of an output shaft, connected to the converter and supplied with overflow valves, and one of pipelines is additionally supplied with actuator, each working cylinder is fabricated as containing two cylinders coaxially located on one basis, internal and external, made in the upper part in the form of hemispheres, the internal cylinder being of smaller height and diameter, than the external one, the cavity formed between the internal and external cylinder is filled with fluid and connected to the cavity of the internal cylinder, the external cylinder is supplied with fuel metering feeder to deliver oxygen-hydrogen mixture and another metering feeder for oxygen, the hydraulic engine is also supplied with a system for fluid cooling.
Distinctive features from a prototype are:
- at least one pair of working cylinders is available in a hydraulic engine providing a two-stroke cycle of a hydraulic engine operation;
- working cylinders are joined by energy generating pipelines fabricated in the form of a system comprising two pipelines connected by means of a hydraulic drive of an output shaft, connected to the converter and supplied with overflow valves, and one of the pipelines is additionally supplied with actuator to start the hydraulic engine in a hydraulic engine and serial (non-simultaneous) operation of the cylinders with rotation of the output shaft in one direction;
- working cylinders are fabricated to comprise two cylinders coaxially located on one basis, internal and external, with heat-insulated cavity formed between an external wall of the internal cylinder and an internal wall of the external cylinder, filled with fluid and connected to the cavity of the internal cylinder providing better thermal insulation of cylinders and decreasing heat loss;
- internal cylinder is fabricated to have smaller height and diameter, than the external one, and is made in the upper part in the form of hemispheres allowing to improve isolation of the internal surface of the external cylinder and reduce heat losses;
- fuel and oxygen metering feeders available on the external cylinder provide safety of a combustible oxygen-hydrogen mixture application because it barbotages through a fluid layer;
- available fluid cooling system allows excluding exhaust due to condensation of residual steams.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where
Fig.1: general view of one pair a hydraulic engine of internal combustion presented schematically;
Fig.2: a rotor-type converter;
Fig.3: a layout of the hydraulic engine assembly comprising two pairs of working cylinders.
Elements of an internal combustion engine design are designated in figures as following:
1, 2 - working cylinders;
3 - internal cylinder;
4 - external cylinder;
5 - basis working cylinders basis;
6 - heat-insulating cavity;
7 - fuel metering feeders;
8 - oxygen metering feeders;
9 - ignition systems;
10 - system of cooled fluid uniform spraying by discharge jets;
11 - pipe for cooled fluid delivery;
12, 13 - valves of cooled fluid overflow;
14 - heat exchanger;
15 - feeder for fluid delivery to and draining from engine system;
16 - pipe for cold fluid delivery to heat exchanger;
17 - pipe of heated fluid removal from heat exchanger;
18 - system of excessive pressure release;
19 - output pipe;
20 - converter;
21, 22 - energy generating pipelines;
23, 24 - actuators of energy generating pipelines;
25, 26, 27, 28 - overflow valves of energy generating pipelines;
29 - converter case;
30 - rotor;
31 - cuts;
32 - moving plates;
33 - converter input cavity;
34 - converter output cavity;
35 - isolated chamber;
36 - general output shaft;
37 - leading cylinder;
38 - coupling element;
39 - electric power generator;
40 - flywheel;
41,42 - pipes for fluid delivery to metering feeder and draining from energy generating pipelines;
43,44 - pipes for fluid delivery into and draining from energy generating pipelines to heat exchanger;
45,46 - fluid overflow valves;
47 - branch tube for water delivery into hydraulic engine;
48 - branch tube for water draining from hydraulic engine.
The claimed hydraulic engine of internal combustion comprises not less than one pair of working cylinders. Each working cylinder 1, 2 in the pair of working cylinders includes an internal cylinder 3 made of material with high thermal conductivity factor, and the external cylinder 4 is made of a material with low thermal conductivity factor. The tops of internal cylinder 3 and external cylinder 4 are fabricated in the form of hemispheres, and these cylinders have the common basis 5. Walls of the internal and external cylinders form a heat-insulating cavity 6. The external cylinder 4 in the bottom part is connected to fuel metering feeder 7 and oxygen metering feeder 8. In the upper part each working cylinder is supplied with an ignition system 9, discharge jets system for uniform spraying of the cooled fluid 10, the said system is joined by the pipe for cooled fluid delivery 11, fitted with the cooled fluid overflow valves 12, 13, the said pipe is connected to heat exchanger 14 having pipe for cold fluid delivery 16 and heated fluid removal 17. Each working cylinder is supplied with a system of excessive pressure release18, connected to output pipe 19. Cavities of internal cylinders 3 in each pair of working cylinders are joined by energy generating pipelines 21 and 22, supplied with actuators of working cylinders 23, 24 and overflow valves 25, 26, 27, 28. Energy generating pipelines 21 and 22 are connected by converter 20. The converter 20 contains: the case 29; 37 rotor excentricly located in the leading cylinder 30 with cuts 31 and moving plates 32; input cavity 33; output cavity 34; isolated chambers 35. On a rotor axis 30 of converter 20 output shaft 36 is located on which the electric power generator 39 and flywheel 40 are mounted. Pairs of working cylinders in a hydraulic engine are connected between themselves through the converter 20 by output shaft 36 which parts are joined with each other by coupling 38.
Energy generating pipeline 21 is connected to metering feeder for fluid delivery and removal from hydraulic engine system 15 by pipe for fluid delivery and drain 41 and 42 and to heat exchanger 14 with pipes 43 and 44 through fluid overflow valves 45 and 46. External cylinders 4, energy generating pipelines 21, 22, pipes 41, 42, 43, 44 and converter 20 are heat-insulated outside with material having low heat conductivity factor.
For water delivery into a hydraulic engine and water drain from it a metering feeder for fluid delivery and drain from hydraulic engine system 15 is connected to branch tubes of water delivery 47 and water drain 48.
The cavities of the working cylinders not filled with fluid at level mark «max» are combustion chambers.
The cavities of the working cylinders filled with fluid at level «min» are working chambers (condensation chambers).
Operation of a hydraulic engine of internal combustion includes the following steps:
- hydraulic engine of internal combustion start:
- two-stroke cycle of the hydraulic engine includes:
«working stroke - condensation - A»;
«working stroke - condensation - B».
Start of the hydraulic engine of internal combustion is performed in two steps.
«First step» - working cylinders of a hydraulic engine are completely filled with fluid using metering feeders for fluid delivery and draining 15 to remove air from the hydraulic engine system, at that the valves of the excessive pressure release system 18 of working cylinders, actuators 23, 24, overflow valves 25, 26 of energy generating pipelines 21 and overflow valves 27, 28 of energy generating pipelines 22 are opened.
«Second step» - in the inter-cylinder cavity 6 filled with fluid, through oxygen metering feeder 8 oxygen is delivered to an internal cavity of working cylinders, the valves of the excessive pressure release system 18 are closed. Into the working cylinder 1 the volume of oxygen equal to the volume of the combustion chamber (mark «max») is delivered, and in the working cylinder 2 the volume of oxygen equal to the volume of the condensation chamber (mark «min») is delivered. The corresponding volumes of fluid displaced by oxygen from working cylinders are removed from the engine system through metering feeder for fluid delivery and drain 15. By means of the excessive pressure release system 18 the excessive pressure of gases if that is present, is released from the working cylinders. As a result the terminal pressure arising in working cylinders and corresponding to the nominal operating mode of a hydraulic engine is maintained.
As a result of these actions the hydraulic engine system passes to a running cycle.
The working stroke of a hydraulic engine occurs in two cycles.
«Working stroke - condensation - A» (Fig.1). Oxygen and hydrogen mixture is delivered in heat-insulating cavity 6 at regular intervals through fuel metering feeder 7. The mixture barbotages through a layer of fluid and ignites by means of ignition system 9. It burns, creating pressure in the combustion chamber of the working cylinder 1. At this time the valve of the excessive pressure 18 of working cylinder 1, overflow valves 26, 27, the valve of fluid overflow 46 and the valve of the cooled fluid overflow 12 are closed, and the valve of the excessive pressure release system 18 of the working cylinder 2, actuators 23, 24, overflow valves 25, 28, the valve of fluid overflow 45 and the valve of cooled fluid overflow 13 are opened. Under pressure the fluid passes from the cavity of the internal cylinder 3 of working cylinder 1 in the cavity of the internal cylinder 3 of working cylinder 2 through energy generating pipelines 21, 22 and converter 20.
From feeder for discrete fluid delivery and drain 15 after cycle «working stroke - condensation - A» is completed the fluid excess from the energy generating pipelines 21 is removed by means of corresponding pipes 41, 42 in quantity formed at combustion of specified volume of oxygen and hydrogen, delivered into the system of hydraulic engine as combustible mixture.
When fluid passes through an input cavity 33, the chamber 35 and output cavity 34 of converter 20 its flow presses on moving plates 32 located in cuts 31, the said moving plates press to the internal surface of chamber 35 and leading cylinder 37. (Plates 32 pressing to an internal surface of chamber 35 and leading cylinder 37 of converter 20 is caused by centrifugal acceleration, which arises on plates 32 at their movement round the central axis of the rotating rotor 30.) Oppositely located plates 32 have two sides; they are protruding over rotor 30 diameter and have different areas which receive different pressures from opposite sides, which are present in input 33 and output 34 cavities of the converter 20. Under these conditions plates 32 move from a high pressure zone in a low pressure zone, where the plate 32 protrudes over rotor 30 diameter most and has the greatest area receiving different pressures from opposite sides. Chambers 35 located in the upper and bottom part of converter 20 serve as barrier dividing the zones of high and low pressure. Movement of plate 32 located in cut 31induces rotor 30 and output shaft 36 connected to it rotation as the result of this rotation fluid, having given energy to plates 32, case 29 and rotor 30 flows to output cavity 34 from chamber 35.
A certain portion of fluid under pressure flows through pipes 11 and 43 from energy generating pipelines 21 through heat exchanger 14 and valves 13 and 45 to jet burners of working cylinder 2 of the system for uniform cooled fluid spraying 10, and is sprayed throughout the working stroke in the cavity of the internal cylinder 3 and cavity 6 of the working cylinder 2. After cooled fluid spraying in the condensation chamber of the working cylinder 2 is completed the system of the excessive pressure release of gases 18 is started; it removes excessive pressure of gases, if such is present, from the condensation chamber by a signal of pressure gauge and fluid level sensor (are not shown). When fluid fills the chamber to mark «max» the cavity of the internal cylinder 3 of working cylinder 2, valves of the excessive pressure release 18 of each working cylinder, overflow valves 25, 28, the valve of cooled fluid overflow 13 and 45 are closed, and valves 12, 26, 27, 46 are open.
«Working stroke - condensation - B» cycle - follows the same order as cycle «working stroke - condensation - A». Fuel and oxygen are delivered into working cylinder 2, and condensation is performed in working cylinder 1. After operation of the system of the excessive gases pressure release 18 of working cylinder 2 is completed, fuel is delivered into the system of the engine and fluid level reaches mark «max» in the internal cylinder, feeder of discrete oxygen delivery 8 starts delivering oxygen in small portions through cavity 6 formed between internal cylinder 3 and external cylinder 4 of the working cylinder 2 and filled with fluid. Small portions are necessary to maintain the initial volume of oxygen in the combustion chamber constant and corresponding to a specified condition of fuel burning at which hydrogen can be used better in the process of its combustion with oxygen. The volume of oxygen which is to be delivered into the system for maintenance of engine running mode corresponds to its quantity dissolved in a certain volume of fluid, removed by metering feeder for fluid delivery and draining from the engine system during one cycle «working stroke - condensation A».
After cycle «working stroke - condensation -B» is completed the cycle «working stroke - condensation A» begins (the process continues as that), in which the valve of excessive pressure release 18 of working cylinders is closed. Valve 18 serves for maintenance of oxygen constant volume and pressure in the combustion chamber, which corresponds to a nominal mode of the hydraulic engine operation.
Oxygen delivery and removal from combustion chambers using feeders and system of excessive gas pressure release is performed according to preset algorithm depending on nominal operating mode of the hydraulic engine.
Valves and other working mechanisms are operated by automatic control system based on the preset algorithm.
Use of the claimed hydraulic engine of internal combustion will allow:
- increase efficiency up to 80-85 % due to: better use of the residual pressure of combustible gases which effects the converter plates (10 %); application of low pressure (below atmospheric), formed as a result of condensation of residual steams and cooling gases, formed at combustion of fuel (5 %); application of heat-insulated cavity filled with fluid, and the spherical form in the upper part of internal and external cylinders which reduces the area of the working cylinder effected by heated gases formed as a result of fuel combustion (2 %); more complete hydrogen combustion contained in fuel, because at its combustion in the combustion chamber where constantly one of the reaction components is present shifts the balance constant of hydrogen and oxygen mixture reaction of burning to the right 2Н2+O 2 <=> 2Н2О;
- use simultaneous delivery of oxygen and hydrogen into the combustion chamber safely;
- utilize for heating purposes heat removed from system of the hydraulic engine by means of heat exchanger that leads to more rational use of heat formed at combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber of the hydraulic engine;
- lower materials consumption at hydraulic engine manufacturing;
- improve ecological compatibility of the hydraulic engine due to application of oxygen and hydrogen as combustible mixture;
- preserve environmental oxygen.
The hydraulic engine of internal combustion supplied with a system for fluid delivery and draining, containing thermally insulated working cylinders filled with fluid, which bottom parts are joined by energy generating pipelines and are connected to hydraulic drive of an output shaft and flywheel, and which upper parts are supplied with an ignition system differs from other similar inventions because it contains at least one pair of working cylinders joined by energy generating pipelines, fabricated in the form of a system comprising two pipelines, joined by means of a hydraulic drive of the output shaft, connected to the converter and supplied with overflow valves, and one of pipelines is additionally supplied with actuators, each working cylinder consists of two cylinders coaxially located on one cylinder basis, internal and external, fabricated in the upper part in the form of hemispheres and the internal cylinder is of smaller height and diameter, than external, the cavity formed between the internal and external cylinders is filled with fluid and is connected to a cavity of the internal cylinder, the external cylinder is supplied with metering feeder for fuel and oxygen-hydrogen mixture, and oxygen feeder, the hydraulic engine is also supplied with a system of fluid cooling.